Humor, laughter, and those aha moments harvard medical school. These theories of humor help explain what elicits humor socially, culturally and psychologically, but with broad brush strokes, rather than a fine point pen. Humor theory formula of laughter by igor krichtafovitch pdf at last, the resution of eternal puzzle. A joke amuses us by evoking, shifting, and dissipating our thoughts, but we do not learn anything through these mental gymnastics. Play evolved as training for the unexpected, in creatures putting themselves at risk of losing balance or dominance so that they learn to recover. This dissertation looks at some of the most important theories of humour and laughter, and aims to consider how successful or otherwise those theories have been. Philosophical perspectives on humour and laughter by john lippitt dissertation submitted for the degree of m. Humor is a bloodless verbal fight aiming to raise your status and strengthen your position. Zak stambor from the american psychological association analyzes various studies in his cover story how laughing leads to learning monitor on psychology vol 37, no.
University of illinois urbanachampaign, 2010 a research paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the master of science degree. Take an object piece of chalk, eraser, or a comb and try to make up something funny about it. Despite the laughter of his fellow villagers, yoshi uses his building skills to make a boat to catch the moon, a kite to reach the clouds, and a bridge that mimics the. They tied her to a tree and started their pot to boiling. This book could be a foundation for a practical guide learn to be funny, but to reach the hearts of broader audience, but it would have to be written in a simpler language and would have to include more.
Victor raskins scriptbased theory of jokes ssth in his semantic mechanisms of humor. More than a century later, gervais and wilson saw duchennes discovery as evidence that laughter evolved at two different points in human development. Humor can serve as a useful and convenient triggering device permitting laughter to serve a myriad of functions in a manner that is, at least physically, harmless. Even a friendly banter is a sort of intellectual clash, a kind of training before serious battles. We have to agree that with any values of c and tp, their quotient will be within the limits of 0. Pdf this study tests the folk psychological belief that we find things funny because. Laughter arises from mismatch between the physical perception and abstract representation of an object. A play theory of humor article pdf available in philosophy and literature 281. According to aristotle who speculates on the matter in his poetics, ancient comedy originated with the komos, a curious and improbable spectacle in which a company of festive males apparently sang, danced, and cavorted rollickingly around the image of a large phallus. This may be so, but does this theory give us key to answering the main question. Arthur schopenhauer further develops idea into incongruity theory. Therefore, the goal of finding a precise scientific formula for funny remains elusive. In humor generally, according to kant, our reason finds nothing of worth.
Contemporary linguistic theories of humour arvo krikmann abstract. In order to ensure broad coverage of the rel evant literature, i will use the term sense of humor in the widest sense, as a sort of catchall term to refer to habitual. The variables for womens success in engineering and computing. In fact, we try to figure out whos the boss in the. As we try to cope with two sets of emotions and thoughts, we need a release and laughter is the way of cleansing our system of the builtup tension and incongruity, and in this case the laughter will be referred as the relief. We did not find an answer to this question in raskins book. Like other human emotions and expressions, laughter and humor provide psychological scientists with rich resources for studying human psychology, ranging from the developmental underpinnings of language to the neuroscience of social perception. Six elements are required for something to be humorous. Figure 1 presents a summary of the main theoretical frames, which could be. From a psychological perspective, humor involves cognitive, emotional, behavioral, psychophysiological and social aspects. Humor may thus for example serve to facilitate relief of the tension caused by ones fears. Krichtafovitch, a recognized expert of international standing in the field of high voltage electrical technologies, has brought more than 40 years of scientific research experience to bear on the publication of humor theory, and says that his work in the field of electrical science specifically helped to identify the relationship between a burst of laughter and release of power.
Humor theories and the physiological benefits of laughter article in holistic nursing practice 236. This paper presents a theory of humor, that certain psychological state which tends to produce laughter. Nov 10, 2017 superiority theory one of the earliest theories of humour is the superiority theory, which was first developed by plato and then expanded on by aristotle and, later, thomas hobbes. It combines sociological and philosophical theories about humor s duality and incongruity with theories of nonviolent resistance to oppression in order to investigate the links between topics that have previously been considered unrelated. Amusement, laughter, and humour in everyday life humor positivo. Laughter is universal across human cultures and even exists in some form in rats, chimps, and bonobos.
Findings from these studies have important implications for nurse practitioners working in. The pleasurable effect of the comical could easily be accounted for by the relief from restraint theory or by the superiority theory. This book is concerned with the exploration of the psychology of humor and laughter by the foremost professional researchers in these areas. A brief introduction for rehabilitation counselors by miranda g. Igor krichtafovitch discovered a formula of laughter. The formula of laughter is primarily for comedians, writers who write satirical pieces, politicians and for people with strong sense of leadership. In conclusion humor and more specifically laughter can have. Preceding an annotated bibliography of 225 items, i tried to construct the outline of a sociological theory of humor and laughter.
Arthur koestlers bisociation theory of humour and its reception. For example, berlyne 1972 alleged that because laughter can be generated in a solitary individual, it seems doubtful that its prime significance is a social one p. Theories of humor in the wider sense are attempts to solve this problem. Robinson, university of iowa lynn smithlovin, university of arizona abstract humor is a quintessentially social phenomenon, since every joke requires both a teller and an audience. Jun 08, 2010 whats more, the derived formula of laughter is a tasty intellectual tidbit, which captures human behavior in an amazingly accurate way. Invite a local certified laughter leader to come to class a teach laughter exercises and lead a laughter club. It is useful to do this exercise, and indeed most of the exercises in the book, with interested friends because this creates a mutual audience. In conclusion, humor and more specifically laughter can have many positive effects on the body and emotional state. Pdf background and objective the link between humor and sense of humor. The theory states that humor is fully characterized by three conditions, each of which, separately, is necessary for humor to occur, and all of which, jointly, are sufficient for humor. Theory in the modern studies sociological approach to the phenomena of laughter has mostly localized within certain social, ethnic or gender groups. An evolutionary theory may explain why we laugh but it.
This limitation will prove useful in the following analysis. But in the brain, at least, the roadmap to raucous laughter is more direct. Humor theory should be a nearby reference for all those who want to succeed. Consciously willed laughter is triggered from the premotor regions. Humour british english, also spelt as humor american english. Relationship between sense of humor and laughter laughter. Laughter is a physical activity that can exist without humour. The relationship between laughter intensity and perceived humour. The view taken in this account is more in line with that of hertzler 1970 who wrote of laughter. Humor theories and the physiological benefits of laughter.
Humor and laughter play a vital part in our everyday social encounters. Still, we must not accept this formula as a definition of the comic. Here we ask how humor operates in taskoriented group discussions. Both a significant work of scholarship and a novel contribution to the understanding of the humourous, this is a seriously engaging book david inglis, university of. It is like putting the cart before the horse, and it works. Similarly, not all instances of humour generate laughter.
In fact, a lot of people feel they cannot laugh much as they don t have a sense of humor. Humor as a serious strategy of nonviolent resistance to. Description download humor theory by igor krichtafovich comments. If the laughter of the mind historically uses the premade mask of the laughter of the body, so the shame of the mind similarly uses the mask of its primitive predecessor shame. Poole laughter is the brush that sweeps away the cobwebs of the heart. Increased confidence, reduced stress, and family connection are direct derivatives of the inclusion of real theory of humor in the daily life. Endorphins c158h251n39o46s are the natural happy drug that is released in the body. Its history dates back to before christ, but recent studies like the healing techniques conducted by norman cousins has given the medical world the most information in recent years. The spectrum of humor ranges from the old, unimaginative, dry, banana peel slip to modern family or arrested developments exquisitely timed and beautifully crafted wordplay, but some people resort to something darker and laugh at what are called morbid jokes.
Rehabilitation counselor training program in the graduate school. Or worse, they combine elements from each in a more. Relief theory maintains that laughter is a homeostatic mechanism by which psychological tension is reduced. In laughter clubs, laughter is the cause and humor is the effect. Philosophy of humor stanford encyclopedia of philosophy.
Laughter, the best evidence suggests, derives from the ritualized breathing and openmouth display common in animal play. A great many theories of humor, laughter, and comedy have been advanced by philosophers and theorists over the centuries, ranging from plato and aristotle to hobbes, descartes, and kant, and, more recently, freud and bergson. Krichtafovitch, a recognized expert of international standing in the field of high voltage electrical technologies, has brought more than 40 years of scientific research experience to bear on the publication of humor theory, and says that his work in the field of electrical science specifically helped to identify the relationship between a burst of laughter and release. Humor theory little audrey jokes emerged 1930s basic format. Mort walker laughter is the closest distance between two people victor borge. Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face. Basically, the relief theory of laughter is when one is faced with a situation where tensions are created within us. Spontaneous humor is triggered by a single instantaneous intuitive decision, following a global evaluation of an event by the two frontal lobes. Incongruity theory is restructured, the superiority theory and the relief theory can be seen as supplementary to it. Laughter and mirth, according to relief theory, result from this release of nervous energy. Interconfessional aspects are often ignored, in some cases, possibly, to avoid religious conflicts but this is one of the ways to introduce humor and laughter into the sociology of religion. The first traces of the incongruity theory can be found in cicero and kant, but it was not until schopenhauer that the theory was fully arti2 hutcheson, f reflections upon laughter. A great many theories of humor, laughter, and comedy have been advanced by philosophers and. Approaches to the sense of humor humour summer school.
Sep 29, 2014 although various classical theories of humor and laughter may be found, in contemporary academic literature, three theories of humor appear repeatedly. Igor krichtafovitch, a prominent russian scientist and inventor, who spent decades researching and analyzing these questions, reveals the answers in his new book, humor theory, a scientific look behind the simple formula for laughter. The term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours latin. According to him, what makes a person laughable is vice, laughable people tends to be cocky and supercilious. Among current humor researchers, there is no consensus about which of these three theories of humor is most viable. Durham etheses philosophical perspectives on humour and. The theory states that humor is fully characterized by three conditions, each of which, separately, is necessary for humor to occur, and all of which, jointly, are sufficient for humor to occur. We do not use humor as a cause to simulate laughter because humor is a mental and intelligent phenomenon.
Theres a growing body of research on the role humor plays in learning and behavior change. For example, they may see themselves as wealthier, more handsome or smarter than they really are. Igor krishtafovich discovered a formula of laughter. Endorphins also increase pain tolerance and they affect your emotions. The jostling of ideas, however, produces a physical jostling of our internal organs and we enjoy that physical stimulation.
Gender, status, and humor in task discussions dawn t. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Consistent with this emphasis on the social roles of laughter, researchers have suggested that there are two different kinds of laughter, and that these are differentiated by how they are elicited. Although various classical theories of humor and laughter may be found, in contemporary academic literature, three theories of humor appear repeatedly. Humor theory by igor krichtafovitch, published by outskirts press. Humor, laughter, and sociological theory a trend report on the sociology of humor and laughter for current sociology, the periodical of the international sociological association. Notice that c has the units of lsec, and tr is a measure of time seconds. David hector monro 19112001 pdf, professor of philosophy at monash university, victoria, australia, wrote the argument of laughter and godwins moral. Pdf humor theory by igor krichtafovich free download pdf. The philosophy of humour 11 in the dialogue, and think about which character might use which terms, and why.
The science of laughter far from mere reactions to jokes, hoots and hollers are serious business. From thomas hobbes fear of the power of laughter to the compulsory, packaged fun of the contemporary mass media, billig takes the reader on a stimulating tour of the strange world of humour. Little audrey is involved in some terrible catastrophe but always finds some humor in every situation. Laughter as social lubricant laughter as social lubricant. All or virtually all humorous situations involve the equivalent of a setup which can be considered a type of establishing operation and a punch line or trigger, by which we mean auditory or visual stimuli that supplement an. That view borders on an extreme, but nonetheless humor s social functions may be its most crucial for modern man. The science of humor is no laughing matter association. Humor as antisocial with all the ways in which laughter and. Downloadhumor theory formula of laughter igor krichtafovitch pdf. Having appeared, shame and laughter act very similarly. A fourth type of theory, which takes the central feature of humor to be ambivalence, a mingling of attraction and repulsion, is of minor importance. This article explores how humor can be used as one aspect of a strategy of nonviolent resistance to oppression and dictatorship.
Monros theories of humor michigan state university. We draw on findings from empirical studies on laughter to demonstrate that these physiological benefits occur regardless of the theory that is used to explain the humor function. Laughter helps to open up their perception and create a sense of humor. One of the earliest theories of laughter is from plato 427 348 b. The two main chemicals, compounds, or components that are used when we laugh is endorphins and dopamine. Findings from these studies have important implications for nurse practitioners working in hospice settings, longterm care facilities, nursing homes, and hospitals. If this theory is true, by the way, it gives a whole new meaning to the phrase standup routine. It brings more laughter to the lives of people without bothering much about their sense of humor.833 1475 476 661 416 1577 1552 304 1004 673 1157 345 913 1574 552 60 712 1156 772 537 600 783 199 162 58 1422 1175 125 559 796 393 1074 16 454